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Sciatica

Sciatica is the name given to pain that is brought about by aggravation of the sciatic nerve. Anything that aggravates this nerve can cause extreme pain, that can vary between mild to extreme. Sciatica is typically brought about by a compacted nerve in the lower spine.
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Frequently, the expression "sciatica" is mistaken for general back pain and swelling in the back muscles. Be that as it may, sciatica isn't simply limited to the back. The sciatic nerve is the longest and most stretched out nerve in the human body. It keeps running from the lower back, through the bottom, and down the legs, finishing just beneath the knee.
This nerve controls a few muscles in the lower legs and supplies sensation to the skin of the foot and most of the lower leg. Sciatica isn't a condition itself but instead a side effect of another issue including the sciatic nerve. A few specialists have estimated that up to 40 percent of individuals will encounter sciatica in any event once in their life.
The sciatic nerve is the longest nerve in the human body. The most widely recognized reason for sciatica is a slipped (herniated) plate. Subjective social treatment can enable a few people to deal with the torment of sciatica. Sciatica isn't a condition; it is a basic symptom of problems with the sciatic nerve.

Symptoms of Sciatica

The fundamental indication of having a problematic sciatica is a severe pain anyplace along the sciatic nerve; from the lower back, through the hips and down the back of either leg.
Other regular indications of sciatica include:
  • A feeling of numbness in the leg along the nerve
  • Severe tingling sensation (sticks and needles) in the feet and toes
  • This torment can run in seriousness and might be increased by sitting idle for long periods.

Causes of Sciatica

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Sciatica is a typical side effect of a few distinctive ailments; be that as it may, an expected 90 percent of cases are expected to occur because of a herniated (slipped) disc. The spinal section is comprised of three sections:
  1. Vertebra (singular bones in the spine that provide protection to the hidden nerves)
  2. Nerves
  3. Backbone Disks
 
Backbone Disks are made of ligament, which is a solid and strong material; the ligament goes about as a pad between every vertebra and enables the spine to be adaptable. A herniated plate happens when a circle is pushed out of its alignment, putting weight on the sciatic nerve.

Different reasons for sciatica include:
  1. Lumbar spinal stenosis - narrowing of the spinal cord in the lower back.
  2. Spondylolisthesis - a condition where the backbone disk slips forward over the vertebra beneath it.
  3. Tumours inside the spine - these may put pressure and compress the foundation of the sciatic nerve.
  4. Infection - Effects the spinal cord.
  5. Other causes - for example, injury within the spine.
  6. Cauda equina disorder - an uncommon yet genuine condition that influences the nerves in the lower portion of the spinal cord; it requires prompt medical attention.
There is no single cause of Sciatica. It can be caused due to multiple reasons.

Risk Factors of Sciatica

There are some common risk factors as well which have been attributed to Sciatic Nerve Pain. These factors are
  1. Age
Most aged people and especially the lot between 30 and 40 years of age have the chance of developing Sciatica as with age our bodies become vulnerable to diseases.
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  1. Profession

Mostly those jobs that require heavy weights to be lifted for a long period of time can cause damage to the backbone and increase the chances of the sciatic nerve being compressed.

  1. Sedentary Lifestyle
Mostly those people who sit for long periods of time and prefer a less active lifestyle are prone to developing Sciatica as compared to those who have a more active lifestyle. Having a good physical routine can prevent Sciatica from occurring.

Treatment

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Sciatica can be treated in a variety of methods which include
  1. Over the counter pain killers that can help in reduction of the pain
  2. Physical activities such as walking , running and stretching
  3. Hot or cold compression packs that can help in the reduction of pain in the human body. Most of these treatments are available online
If the patient suffers from chronic Sciatica then its treatment involves a mixture of self care measures and treatments which include
  1. Physical Therapy in which the body is given physical massage to relieve the pressure from the backbone
  2. Cognitive behaviour therapy is also a viable option that can help in treating chronic pain by training people to manage and react to their painful condition
  3. Painkillers that can help in relieving the pain temporarily
The least preferred option is physical surgery which is opted for in case other treatments and methods fail. In case the pain keeps on increasing despite the treatment done by other methods. The surgical method also has two possible options which are
  1. Lumbar laminectomy
The spinal cord is widened in the area around lower back which reduces pressure on the nerves around that.
  1. Discectomy
A complete herniated disc is removed and the pressure on the sciatic nerve in that area is relieved for further actions.
It is totally the decision and discretion of your surgeon that whichever path and option he selects for you. Before operating on you he will consider the effects of other treatment methods on your body and backbone and see if they have had a viable effect or not. Only in the least preferred case your surgeon will opt for physical surgery.
In most cases Sciatica will go away on its own as time will pass and surgery won’t be a requirement. Normally it takes around 6 weeks to recover completely from sciatic condition. In case of surgery and operation it will take more time to recover from this condition.